سنت‌ توماس؛ شهر ارواح که از زیر آب سر برآورد

سنت‌ توماس؛ شهر ارواح که از زیر آب سر برآورد

عماد جعفری
| پنجشنبه, ۲۹ مرداد ۹۴ ساعت ۰۸:۳۰
سنت‌توماس (St. Thomas)، شهری که مورمون‌ها بنا کردند، کشاورزان در آن اقامت موقتی داشتند، پس از آن به اعماق آب فرو رفت و سرانجام به شهر ارواح بدل شد. با کجارو همراه باشید تا با شهر ارواح بیشتر آشنا شویم.
سال ۱۸۶۵ میلادی سنت‌توماس به دست مورمون‌ها (پیروان شاخه مذهبی جنبش قدیسان آخر الزمان) در نزدیکی رودخانه مادی (Muddy River) تاسیس شد. پیشوایان مذهبی مورمون‌ها به رسوبات نمکی اطراف این رودخانه علاقه‌مند شده بودند. مورمون‌ها در اصل ساکن ایالت یوتا  (Utah) بودند و هنگامی که متوجه شدند شهر تازه تاسیس‌شان در ایالت نوادا (Nevada) واقع شده و سه سال مالیات به این ایالت بدهکارند، این شهر را ترک گفتند. موج جدید مهاجرت به این شهر را کشاورزان شکل دادند و جمعیت این شهر به حدود ۵۰۰ نفر رسید. سال ۱۹۳۶ عملیات ساخت سد هوور (Hoover Dam) به اتمام رسید. این سد که بر روی رودخانه کلرادو (Colorado River) بنا شده بود، یکی از بزرگترین ذخایر آب جهان موسوم به دریاچه مید (Lake Mead) را به‌وجود آورد. در این فرآیند، شهر سنت‌توماس خالی از سکنه شده و به اعماق آب فرو رفت. طی سال‌های گذشته، به دلیل خشکسالی‌های پی در‌پی و افزایش مصرف آب، سطح دریاچه مید رفته‌ رفته به کمترین مقدار خود رسید و سنت‌توماس که حالا شهر ارواح شده بود، سر برآورد. باهم به تصاویر ویرانه‌های این شهر نگاهی می‌اندازیم. LAKE MEAD NATIONAL RECREATION AREA, NV - AUGUST 03:  Ruins of a structure are shown in the ghost town of St. Thomas on August 3, 2015 in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. The town was founded in 1865 by Mormon pioneers at the site where the Muddy River flowed into the Colorado River and at one point had about 500 settlers. The town was abandoned in 1938 after the construction of the Hoover Dam caused the Colorado River to rise. The area was once submerged in 60 feet of water but became entirely exposed to the air as a severe drought in the Western United States over the last 15 years has caused Lake Mead to drop to historic low levels.  (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images) LAKE MEAD NATIONAL RECREATION AREA, NV - AUGUST 03:  Tree stumps used as a boundary marker are shown in the ghost town of St. Thomas on August 3, 2015 in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. The town was founded in 1865 by Mormon pioneers at the site where the Muddy River flowed into the Colorado River and at one point had about 500 settlers. The town was abandoned in 1938 after the construction of the Hoover Dam caused the Colorado River to rise. The area was once submerged in 60 feet of water but became entirely exposed to the air as a severe drought in the Western United States over the last 15 years has caused Lake Mead to drop to historic low levels.  (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images) LAKE MEAD NATIONAL RECREATION AREA, NV - AUGUST 03:  Ruins of a structure are shown in the ghost town of St. Thomas on August 3, 2015 in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. The town was founded in 1865 by Mormon pioneers at the site where the Muddy River flowed into the Colorado River and at one point had about 500 settlers. The town was abandoned in 1938 after the construction of the Hoover Dam caused the Colorado River to rise. The area was once submerged in 60 feet of water but became entirely exposed to the air as a severe drought in the Western United States over the last 15 years has caused Lake Mead to drop to historic low levels.  (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images) LAKE MEAD NATIONAL RECREATION AREA, NV - AUGUST 03:  Tree stumps used as a boundary marker are shown in the ghost town of St. Thomas on August 3, 2015 in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. The town was founded in 1865 by Mormon pioneers at the site where the Muddy River flowed into the Colorado River and at one point had about 500 settlers. The town was abandoned in 1938 after the construction of the Hoover Dam caused the Colorado River to rise. The area was once submerged in 60 feet of water but became entirely exposed to the air as a severe drought in the Western United States over the last 15 years has caused Lake Mead to drop to historic low levels.  (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images) LAKE MEAD NATIONAL RECREATION AREA, NV - AUGUST 03:  A general view shows the ghost town of St. Thomas, including the ruins of the Hannig Ice Cream Parlor in the distance, on August 3, 2015 in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. The town was founded in 1865 by Mormon pioneers at the site where the Muddy River flowed into the Colorado River and at one point had about 500 settlers. The town was abandoned in 1938 after the construction of the Hoover Dam caused the Colorado River to rise. The area was once submerged in 60 feet of water but became entirely exposed to the air as a severe drought in the Western United States over the last 15 years has caused Lake Mead to drop to historic low levels.  (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images) LAKE MEAD NATIONAL RECREATION AREA, NV - AUGUST 03:  Pieces of broken glass, rusted metal and other artifacts are shown in the ghost town of St. Thomas on August 3, 2015 in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. The town was founded in 1865 by Mormon pioneers at the site where the Muddy River flowed into the Colorado River and at one point had about 500 settlers. The town was abandoned in 1938 after the construction of the Hoover Dam caused the Colorado River to rise. The area was once submerged in 60 feet of water but became entirely exposed to the air as a severe drought in the Western United States over the last 15 years has caused Lake Mead to drop to historic low levels.  (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images) LAKE MEAD NATIONAL RECREATION AREA, NV - AUGUST 03:  Ruins of a structure are shown in the ghost town of St. Thomas on August 3, 2015 in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. The town was founded in 1865 by Mormon pioneers at the site where the Muddy River flowed into the Colorado River and at one point had about 500 settlers. The town was abandoned in 1938 after the construction of the Hoover Dam caused the Colorado River to rise. The area was once submerged in 60 feet of water but became entirely exposed to the air as a severe drought in the Western United States over the last 15 years has caused Lake Mead to drop to historic low levels.  (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images) LAKE MEAD NATIONAL RECREATION AREA, NV - AUGUST 03:  The ruins of the Hannig Ice Cream Parlor are shown in the ghost town of St. Thomas on August 3, 2015 in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. The town was founded in 1865 by Mormon pioneers at the site where the Muddy River flowed into the Colorado River and at one point had about 500 settlers. The town was abandoned in 1938 after the construction of the Hoover Dam caused the Colorado River to rise. The area was once submerged in 60 feet of water but became entirely exposed to the air as a severe drought in the Western United States over the last 15 years has caused Lake Mead to drop to historic low levels.  (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images) LAKE MEAD NATIONAL RECREATION AREA, NV - AUGUST 03:  The ruins of the Hannig Ice Cream Parlor are shown at sunset in the ghost town of St. Thomas on August 3, 2015 in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. The town was founded in 1865 by Mormon pioneers at the site where the Muddy River flowed into the Colorado River and at one point had about 500 settlers. The town was abandoned in 1938 after the construction of the Hoover Dam caused the Colorado River to rise. The area was once submerged in 60 feet of water but became entirely exposed to the air as a severe drought in the Western United States over the last 15 years has caused Lake Mead to drop to historic low levels.  (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images) LAKE MEAD NATIONAL RECREATION AREA, NV - AUGUST 03:  Pieces of broken glass are shown in the ghost town of St. Thomas on August 3, 2015 in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. The town was founded in 1865 by Mormon pioneers at the site where the Muddy River flowed into the Colorado River and at one point had about 500 settlers. The town was abandoned in 1938 after the construction of the Hoover Dam caused the Colorado River to rise. The area was once submerged in 60 feet of water but became entirely exposed to the air as a severe drought in the Western United States over the last 15 years has caused Lake Mead to drop to historic low levels.  (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images) LAKE MEAD NATIONAL RECREATION AREA, NV - AUGUST 03:  Ruins of a structure are shown in the ghost town of St. Thomas on August 3, 2015 in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. The town was founded in 1865 by Mormon pioneers at the site where the Muddy River flowed into the Colorado River and at one point had about 500 settlers. The town was abandoned in 1938 after the construction of the Hoover Dam caused the Colorado River to rise. The area was once submerged in 60 feet of water but became entirely exposed to the air as a severe drought in the Western United States over the last 15 years has caused Lake Mead to drop to historic low levels.  (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images) GettyImages-482908822   منبع:mashable

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